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The Skiing Continuum
I have been doing Nordic and Alpine skiing, off and on, for over forty years. Due to my interest in hiking and backpacking, I wanted to do cross country skiing on hiking trails. This led me to explore alternative skiing equipment and techniques. To do backcountry skiing requires covering all types of terrain from climbing the mountain, traversing flat areas, traversing angled mountain sides, and skiing down the mountain. This article explores the Ski Continuum: from XC (Nordic), Backcountry, Telemark, Alpine Touring, to Downhill (Alpine) skiing and ski gear. I'll start with Downhill and XC, the types of skiing most people are familiar with - they represent the two extreme ends of the continuum. Everything in the middle is a compromise between touring efficiency (lightweight & flexible) vs. steep downhill turning ability (heavy & stiff).

Alpine or Downhill Skiing
Alpine or downhill skis are what most people are familiar with. They are single camber, heavy, torsionally stiff, metal edged skis with lots of side cut for easy turning. They also use relatively heavy and stiff bindings. You can "carve" a turn with downhill skis. They are suitable only for downhill skiing, but are optimum for that type of skiing. They would be used with very high, stiff, plastic boots and a binding that locks the toe and heel in place. This provides an extremely rigid and torsionally stiff connection from the leg through the foot/boot/binding to the ski edge which results in excellent control of the ski in fast, steep, and icy conditions. They are extremely efficient at what they were designed to do, but not much good for anything else.

Ideal terrain: moderate to steep downhill only
100% steep downhill turning ability, 0% touring efficiency

Nordic or Cross Country (XC) Skiing
Cross country skis are long, skinny, straight without sidecut, lightweight, flexible skis, with a double camber, and without metal edges. They are extremely efficient for traversing flat or gently undulating terrain (think golf course). They are very difficult or impossible to turn on even the easiest terrain. You have to do a "step turn", where you literally step around the turn. These skis are optimum for gentle uphills and flat terrain. Locomotion is via an efficient kick and glide. The double camber allows the unweighted ski to only touch the snow at the tip and tail. The center part of the ski is called the wax pocket and either contains grip wax, or on a no wax ski, a fish scale pattern. Either the wax or fish scale pattern grips the snow under the weighted ski for kicking, while the unweighted ski glides forward. Resulting in a beautifully rhythmic kick & glide.

XC skis are the most efficient way to traverse snow on foot as long as its not too deep or steep. Three types of bindings are typically used. A three pin which is the traditional binding, a cable binding which is  preferred for backcountry use, and the New Nordic Norm (NNN) which consists of a horizontal pin molded into the toe of the boot which is then attached to the binding. All three binding styles lock the toe of the boot only, leaving the heel free to rise when touring. The foot pivots around the toe connection. Backcountry versions frequently have a cable that attaches around the back of the boot to increase the stiffness of the boot / ski connection. XC touring boots are typically lightweight leather or fabric. Backcountry ski boots are very similar to heavy leather backpacking boots with the appropriate fixture at the toe to attach to the binding. Poles can either be fiberglass or aluminum, should be length adjustable for different terrain.

Waxable XC skis provide better performance but require a commitment to learning which waxes to use, ski preparation, and possibly changing waxes during the day. In the Mid Atlantic states, no wax skis are preferred by many for their simplicity, and their relatively good performance around freezing temperatures where using waxes is more problematic. In my opinion, XC skis provide about 1-2% of the control of an alpine ski/boot/binding combination relative to turning the ski, particularly when going downhill. XC skiing is much easier to learn than Alpine skiing.

Ideal terrain: flat, gentle undulations, groomed trails at XC resorts, golf courses, parks, no significant downhill
1-2% steep downhill turning ability, 100% touring efficiency

Backcountry Skiing (Light Telemark)
The two ski regimes described above are the most popular and common, particularly on the East Coast. Both are very well suited to their specific ski regime. If you want to go into the backcountry, you need something else. Alpine skis/boots/bindings are useless at flat touring, and going uphill. XC skis are terrible at turning and downhill. We need a hybrid ski that does some of both. Unfortunately it will be a compromise because it's not possible to get a ski that does everything perfectly. The compromise is between flat touring and downhill turning ability. A classic backcountry ski is a beefed up XC ski. It is a (usually) shorter, wider, stiffer, double camber ski with metal edges, and some sidecut. Its flexibility and double camber still provide very good touring performance. The metal edges and sidecut make it easier to turn. You can ski uphill, tour the flats, and ski downhill with this ski as long as the downhill portions aren't too steep. Backcountry skis are available in wax or no wax styles.

Boots are high topped, and heavy leather - similar to backpacking boots. Bindings can be: three pin only, three pin and cable, or step in with a cable. The cable goes around the heel of the boot to increase the stiffness for turning. I really prefer the step in + cable variety. Poles should be aluminum because of the metal edge of the skis. Fiberglass poles will break if they hit the ski edges too hard. This is probably the optimum ski for the northeast if you are doing about 70-80% touring and uphill and 20-30% downhill. I would estimate that backcountry skis/boots/bindings provide about 25% of the downhill and turning control of an alpine ski/boot/binding. Even though they are better than XC skis, they are still relatively hard to turn and use on the downhill portions (relative to Alpine gear). Backcountry skiing is much more difficult than alpine skiing. If your skill level is high enough, these skis will work well for most aspects of backcountry skiing.

Ideal terrain: flat, uphill, moderately steep downhill
25% steep downhill turning ability, 75% touring efficiency

Telemark Skiing (Heavy Telemark)
Telemark skiing is the most difficult and highest level of backcountry skiing. Some describe it as the downhill portion of XC skiing. Heavy Telemark skis are very similar to alpine skis. They are used with a touring binding that locks the toe and allows the heel to be free. You can use exactly the same binding and boot as for backcountry skiing. It's also possible to buy heavier, stiffer, plastic telemark boots which provide more control. These skis are intended for steep terrain where turning and downhill ability are more important than touring efficiency. They are typically what is used for backcountry skiing out west with their much steeper terrain, although backcountry gear works well out West too. How much steep & deep do you want to do? The steep uphill portions would be done with climbing skins on the bottom of the skis. Wax can be used for less steep uphill climbs. Telemark skis are normally not available in a waxless version. In the East, you would use them to ski steeper terrain or use at lift served ski areas.

Telemark really refers to a type of turn rather than a specific type of equipment, but most ski equipment manufacturers do make specific skis and boots for telemark skiing. This turn was invented many years ago by the inventor of XC skiing and it will work with any type of free heel ski. 

Ideal terrain: anything
85-100% steep downhill turning ability, 50-65% touring efficiency

Alpine Touring (AT) Skiing
Alpine touring (or Randonnee) is an attempt to short circuit the long learning curve of telemark skiing. It is attractive to people who already know how to do Alpine skiing and would like to use those skills for the downhill portion of backcountry skiing. The equipment consists of AT skis and AT boots with an AT binding that can be used in a heel lock position for downhill skiing, and a heel free position for uphill and touring. This is much more popular in Canada and Europe than here. AT skis are very similar to Alpine or heavy Telemark skis. AT boots are multifunctional plastic boots  that can be used for Alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, backpacking, and mountaineering. The steep uphill portions would be done with climbing skins on the bottom of the skis or wax for less steep ascentsTypically not available in a waxable version, although you could try using wax - usually need climbing skins for anything but downhill - even flat traverses, so not much glide.

Ideal terrain: anything
95-100% steep downhill turning ability, 35-55% touring efficiency

Climbing Skins
So what are climbing skins? They are synthetic "skins" that you put on the bottom of your XC, BC, Telemark, or AT skis to climb hills. It's much easier than using a herringbone or a sidestep. It also allows you to climb steep terrain - steeper than you could do with a herringbone or sidestep. They used to be made from animal fur which allowed the ski to glide forward but not backward. Today they are typically nylon or neoprene. Both stick well, nylon is strongly preferred as it provides some glide in a forward direction. Neoprene sticks better but with no glide at all - better suited to Ski Mountaineering's steeper terrain.

If all else fails, go snowshoeing ! Its a lot of fun and a lot easier to learn than some of these ski techniques. Just strap them on and start walking. Get shoes that are large enough to support your weight plus backpack. Larger wood and gut or neoprene laced shoes are probably better in deep, fresh powder. The nylon reinforced neoprene is strongly preferred over natural gut for reduced maintenance. The smaller aluminum framed shoes with solid plastic decking are lighter and will provide more floatation in a smaller shoe. They would be better for backpacking where you are trying to cut weight. If you're going on somewhat steep or icy terrain you will want crampons, preferably at both the foot pivot point and the heel, and possibly along the sides. Poles help to keep your balance when traversing the side of a hill. Adjustable length poles work well for traversing hillsides on skis too.

Ideal terrain: anything that isn't too steep

Hut to Hut Skiing or Snowshoeing
Some books & magazine articles about Hut to Hut skiing include information about these elusive mountain huts which seem to be gaining in popularity in recent years. Colorado is the hut epicenter of the US with roughly fifty huts in several different hut systems.

Powder, January 1996, Powder Tracks - "Hut Tripping, Yurt Just Gotta Go"
Outside Magazine, Winter Travel Guide 1996, "Snowbound Bliss"
Men's Journal, January 1997, "Cross Country's Heavenly Huts"
Brian Litz, Colorado Hut to Hut, Second Ed., Westcliffe Publishers, Englewood, CO, 1995
Chris Townsend, Wilderness Skiing and Winter Camping, Ragged Mountain Press, Camden, ME, 1994.


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